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Student Objectives
Syllabus | Outline |
Learning Outcomes | Lecture Notes


Embryology and Development | Gestation and Parturition | Urinary System | Digestive System |
The Blood | The Heart | Respiratory System | Lymphatic System | Nervous System | Endocrine System


Embryology and Development
  1. Describe in accurate detail the process of fertilization.

  2. Explain the stages of cell division and the processes that form the embryo.

  3. Describe the process of implantation.

  4. Define the embryonic stage and list the steps in the development of the embryo.

  5. Describe the process if cell differentiation.

  6. Define tissues that arise from each of the germ layers.

  7. Explain the development of the plancenta and the amnion.

  8. Discuss the function of the placenta and the amnion.

  9. Describe the development and function of the umbilical cord.

  10. Explain how parturition date is determined.

  11. Describe fetal circulation and compare to adult circulation.


Embryology and Development | Gestation and Parturition | Urinary System | Digestive System |
The Blood | The Heart | Respiratory System | Lymphatic System | Nervous System | Endocrine System


Gestation and Parturition

  1. Describe the mechanism that prevents loss of the uterine wall during pregnancy.

  2. Define the hormones that control events during pregnancy and parturition.

  3. List and define common problems associated with pregnancy.

  4. Discuss current theories on the events leading to labor.

  5. Define the process of parturition.

  6. Define lactational physiology and describe the process in detail.


Embryology and Development | Gestation and Parturition | Urinary System | Digestive System |
The Blood | The Heart | Respiratory System | Lymphatic System | Nervous System | Endocrine System


Urinary System

  1. List the components of the urinary system.

  2. Describe the general functions of the urinary system.

  3. Describe the anatomy of the kidney.

  4. Describe the anatomy of the nephron.

  5. Explain the process of dilute urine formation.

  6. Explain the process of concentrated urine formation.

  7. Compare the processes of dilute and concentrated urine formation.

  8. Explain the countercurrent mechanism of the loop of henle and the vasa recta.

  9. Define the route of blood circulation through the kidney.

  10. Discuss the process of glomerular filtration.

  11. Describe the mechanisms to regulate glomerular filtration rate (G.F.R).

  12. Calculate the G.F.R. of a substance.

  13. Describe the processes of tubular reabsorption.

  14. List what molecules and ions are reabsorbed and by what means.

  15. Describe the process of tubular secretion.

  16. List the molecules and ions that are secreted and by what means.

  17. Describe the normal composition of urine.

  18. Describe abnormal urine composition and clinical significance.

  19. Describe the urinary systems contribution to homeostasis.


Embryology and Development | Gestation and Parturition | Urinary System | Digestive System |
The Blood | The Heart | Respiratory System | Lymphatic System | Nervous System | Endocrine System


Digestive System

  1. List the basic organs and structures contained in the digestive system.

  2. List and define the accessory organs of the digestive system.

  3. List the events that occur in the digestive system.

  4. Describe the structures found in the oral cavity.

  5. Describe the function of the stomach

  6. Describe the function of the small intestine.

  7. Describe the function of the Large intestine.

  8. Identify and describe the enzymes that are included in the digestive system.

  9. Locate on the cadaver and the cat the organs and structures of the digestive system.

  10. Describe the histology of the digestive system.

  11. Describe the functions of the liver.

  12. Describe the function of the pancreas.

  13. Determine the digestive process involved for fats, proteins, carbohydrates.

  14. Describe the contribution of the digestive system to homeostasis.


Embryology and Development | Gestation and Parturition | Urinary System | Digestive System |
The Blood | The Heart | Respiratory System | Lymphatic System | Nervous System | Endocrine System


Cardiovascular System : The Blood

  1. Describe the nature and characteristics of blood.

  2. Describe the flow of blood through the heart and blood vessels.

  3. List the formed elements and define their function.

  4. Describe, using the microscope, the characteristics of the formed elements.

  5. Describe the process of hemopoesis.

  6. Describe the structure and function of hemoglobin.

  7. Describe the contribution of blood to homeostasis.

  8. Describe the functions of the leukocytes.

  9. Describe the process to determine erythrocyte and leukocyte values in a sample of blood.

  10. Define the meaning of hematocrit and hemoglobin testing.

  11. Describe the components found in plasma.

  12. Describe the process of blood clotting.

  13. List the major blood types and genetic origin.

  14. Define the terms agglutinogen and agglutinin in relation to blood typing.


Embryology and Development | Gestation and Parturition | Urinary System | Digestive System |
The Blood | The Heart | Respiratory System | Lymphatic System | Nervous System | Endocrine System


Cardiovascular System : The Heart

  1. Describe the general structure of the heart.

  2. Describe, in accurate detail, blood flow blood through the heart.

  3. List the major valves and their location in the heart.

  4. Define the terms : myocardium, epicardium, pericardium, endocardium.

  5. Describe the functions of each heart chamber.

  6. Describe the events that occur in a normal heart cycle.

  7. Identify the characteristics of a normal E.C.G.

  8. Describe the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries.

  9. Identify on the cadaver and the cat the major arteries and veins.

  10. Trace the blood flow through the body.

  11. Discuss common diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  12. Explain the contribution of the heart to homeostasis.


Embryology and Development | Gestation and Parturition | Urinary System | Digestive System |
The Blood | The Heart | Respiratory System | Lymphatic System | Nervous System | Endocrine System


The Respiratory System

  1. Describe the trachea and the bronchial tree.

  2. Describe the structure of the Respiratory tubes and the alveoli.

  3. Define the major contributions of the respiratory system to homeostasis.

  4. Describe the structure of each lung.

  5. List the events that occur in a typical respiratory cycle.

  6. Describe how the respiration rate is controlled.

  7. List several factors that affect the respiratory rate.

  8. Describe in detail the process of alveoli gas exchange.

  9. Describe the exchange of gasses in the respiratory system.


Embryology and Development | Gestation and Parturition | Urinary System | Digestive System |
The Blood | The Heart | Respiratory System | Lymphatic System | Nervous System | Endocrine System


The Lymphatic System

  1. Define the purpose of the lymphatic system.

  2. Describe the characteristics of lymph.

  3. Describe the movement of lymph in the body.

  4. List the functions of the spleen and thymus.

  5. Describe the role of the lymphatic system in homeostasis.

  6. Describe the function of the thymus in the immune system.

  7. Define immunity and list the types of immune responses in the body.

  8. Describe cellular immune response.

  9. Describe humoral immune response.

  10. Describe the relationship of the lymphatic system to the cardiovascular system.


Embryology and Development | Gestation and Parturition | Urinary System | Digestive System |
The Blood | The Heart | Respiratory System | Lymphatic System | Nervous System | Endocrine System


The Nervous System

  1. Describe the general functions of the nervous system.

  2. Explain the difference between sensory and motor neurons.

  3. List types of cells associated with the nervous system.

  4. Define cell membrane potential and how a electrical current is produced.

  5. Describe the synapse and impulse conduction through the synaptic junction.

  6. Describe impulse processing.

  7. Define : neuronal pools, facilitation, convergence, divergence.

  8. Describe how neurons are classified according to structure and function.

  9. Describe the spinal cord and associated tissues and cells.

  10. List the functions of the spinal cord.

  11. Describe the general aspects of the brain.

  12. Describe the function of each major region of the brain.

  13. List the cranial nerves.

  14. List the spinal nerves.

  15. Describe the autonomic nervous system.

  16. Describe the parasympathetic and sympathetic division of the autonomic system.

  17. Describe the pathways of nerves and the location of major nerves in the cadaver and the cat.

  18. Describe the location of major nerve plexus.

  19. Define the contribution of the nervous system to homeostasis.


Embryology and Development | Gestation and Parturition | Urinary System | Digestive System |
The Blood | The Heart | Respiratory System | Lymphatic System | Nervous System | Endocrine System


The Endocrine System

  1. Define the organs associated with the endocrine system.

  2. Describe the general characteristics of a hormone.

  3. List the organs and the hormones secreted by each.

  4. Describe how hormones target cells.

  5. Describe the targeted cell for each hormone.

  6. Describe how the homeostasis of the body is affected by hormones.