Biology 101 Chapter 8

Cellular Reproduction


What is cellular division?  One cell growing in size and dividing to produce two new cells


Also called "simple cellular division”

        Functions for:

1)  Growth and development

2)  Repair and reproduction


Reproduction = single or multiple celled organisms producing a new generation

        2 Types:

1)  Asexual: production of offspring by a single parent, no sexes or genders


2)  Sexual: production of offspring by two or more parents resulting in genetic recombination


Purpose: to pass on the genome


In Prokaryotes: No nucleus!

        Use process called binary fission, DNA replicated and divided between two new cells.


In Eukaryotes: Nucleus !!

→ Simple Cell Division: has 2 parts

1)  Nuclear Division: division of nuclear contents

2)  Cytoplasmic Division: division of the cytoplasm


Nuclear division (only eukaryotes) can take one of two forms



·       This is simple cell division

·       Used for growth and repair

·       Used for asexual reproduction

·       One parent cell gives rise to two daughter cells

·       Each daughter cell exactly identical genetically to parent

·       Occurs in somatic cells

·       Most common form of division

·       Ex. protistans, fungi, plants and animals





·       Also called Reduction Division

·       One purpose only, and that is sexual reproduction

·       One parent cell will give rise to four daughter cells

·       Each daughter cell is nonidentical genetically to parent or each other

·       Occurs only in germ cells that give rise to the gametes, the sperm and eggs

·       Reduces number of genes in gametes to 1/2 of parents, so called reduction


Chromosomes and Duplication

Chromosome Numbers and Sets

Duplication: each daughter cell gets a full copy of genes

Duplicated Chromosome Structure: centromeres and sister chromatids

The Cell Life Cycle

(From one division to the next)


Total cycle: Has 2 major parts or phases.




        Has 3 Subphases


                1) G (gap) one (G-1)


                2) S (synthesis) phase (S-phase)


                3) G (gap) two (G-2)


2. MITOTIC PHASE (mitosis + cytokinesis)


        Has 4 Subphases (4 phases of mitosis)


                1) Prophase

                2) Metaphase

                3) Anaphase

                4) Telophase


                        - Then cytokinesis



Prophase - early:

·       Chromosomes coil up and become visible

·       Centrioles start to move towards opposite ends of cell

·       Mitotic spindle begins to form

Prophase - late:

·       Centrioles finally at opposite ends of cell

·       Nucleolus degenerates and disappears

·       Nuclear envelope breaks down and disappears

·       Rest of spindle forms



·       Chromosomes line up in a straight single row

·       Centromeres of each chromosome attach to mitotic spindles from both sides



·       Centromeres finish duplicating and break apart, separating the sister chromatids of the chromosome

·       Spindles shorten, pulling sister chromatids toward opposite ends of the cell



·       Chromosomes (previously sister chromatids) finish migrating to ends of cell

·       New nuclear envelope forms around each batch of chromosomes

·       Nucleoli reform inside each nucleus

·       Eventually cytokinesis occurs


Differences between animal and plant mitosis:

1.   Cytokinesis: animal cells develop a cleavage furrow while plants form a new cell wall

2.   Plants lack centrioles, but still have a mitotic spindle which anchors to the cell wall



Chromosomes in the body come in pairs, called homologous pairs or homologues

·       One homologue from each pair comes from one parent while the other homologue comes from the other parent

·       Homologues are similar in that they have the same genes at the same loci, same shape, size and banding pattern.  But they may contain different alleles for the genes.



Normal cells are diploid, or 2N, they have 2 sets of chromosomes

Sex cells, gametes (sperm and eggs), are haploid, or 1N, they have 1 set of chromosomes




·       Used for sexual reproduction


Haploid Gametes

Only one part of process; also requires gametogenesis and fertilization











Process of Meiosis

·       Reduction division (2N→1N)

·       Most steps are similar to mitosis

·       Consists of 2 separate divisions called

1.   Meiosis I

2.   Meiosis II

·       Each division has all four phases: PMAT

·       Reduction occurs in Meiosis I



Meiosis I



·       Same as mitosis, DNA replicates, cell prepares to divide


Prophase I:

·       Most complex and longest phase of Meiosis

·       Chromosomes condense and become visible

·       Centrioles migrate towards poles of cell, spindle starts to form

·       Nuclear envelope breaks down and disappears

·       2 important events occur during prophase I:

1.   Synapsis: homologous chromosomes come together as pairs, resulting in a structure called a tetrad

2.   Crossing-over: non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes exchange segments.  Since homologues have same genes, but maybe different alleles, this creates novel gene combinations and increases genetic diversity.


Metaphase I:

·       Homologous chromosome pairs (tetrads) are moved to metaphase plate (equatorial plane) and aligned in middle of cell

·       Chromosomes now in a double row

·       Spindles attach to centromeres, one spindle to one centromere


Anaphase I:

·       Tetrads split up.  Unlike mitosis, sister chromatids stay together.

·       Homologous pairs split up and one entire chromosome migrates to poles of cell

·       !! Actual reduction has occurred here!!


Telophase I and cytokinesis:

·       Chromosomes arrive at poles

·       Now haploid, though still in duplicate form

·       Chromosomes uncoil, new nuclear membrane forms, new nucleoli form

·       Cytokinesis finally takes place

·       No DNA replication between Telophase I and Prophase II


Meiosis II


Essentially the same as mitosis

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II (and cytokinesis)

Accidents of Meiosis

Non-Disjunction: members of a chromosome pair (tetrad) fail to separate during Anaphase I.  Leads to aneuploidy and polyploidy


Trisomy 21

Turner's Syndrome

Klinefelter's Syndrome


Forms of advanced Asexual Reproduction

In plants                          In animals

stolons                             fission

grafting                            regeneration

spores                              budding


Animal Life Cycle vs. Plant Life Cycle (see figure in class)

(Note plant gametophyte and sporophyte generations)